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            Deposit Types

Narrow Vein

Narrow gold veins are tricky and often misunderstood by Resource Geologists who are more accustomed to working with other deposit types. We have extensive experience in Narrow Gold Vein Deposits.

The 3D model is a critical step in obtaining a realistic resource estimate, as are high-grade (capping) treatments. Add to this the complexity of dealing with multiple (sometimes >100) individual veins and it is easy to see how the shortcuts often used by less knowledgeable resource geologists can cost you dearly in the long run.

Classification is also a parameter that needs experienced resource geologists with significant exposure to such deposits to produce a reliable model that won’t lead to flawed economic studies or reconciliation issues.


Volcanic Massive Sulphide (VMS-Au)

Volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits generally do not pose great difficulties when modelling but can be more complex when semi-massive zones and metal zonations are present.

A common error observed in many VMS-Au deposit mineral resource estimates is to interpolate NSR values rather than individual metals and then calculate the NSR value for each block. Individual metal distribution is the key to a robust and malleable block model for future economic scenarios and is an important procedural aspect of reliable resource estimation.

The Abitibi region in Canada is well-known for its gold-bearing VMS. The president of PLR Resources lived and worked for over 15 years in this region.

Lithium Pegmatite


Lithium Pegmatite projects can be tricky as they appear extraordinarily simple to non-experienced resource geologists who improvise as experts for this type of deposit. Yet many specific aspects are difficult to master.

Down the road, a wrong 3D model and block model can hurt the economics of a lithium pegmatite project or kill it altogether.

Our experts have developed a rare expertise in hard rock lithium deposits and partner with Mining Engineers and Metallurgists to deliver reliable mineral resource estimates.

Although epithermal deposit modelling follows a different approach than narrow vein deposits, these two types share many similarities.

The 3D model is critical for producing a realistic resource estimate, as is the high-grade (capping) treatment.

Classification is also a parameter that needs experienced resource geologists with significant exposure to such deposits to get a reliable model that won’t lead to flawed economic studies or reconciliation issues.

Although not usually challenging in terms of 3D modelling, some iron deposits can be structurally complex, requiring geologists with sound structural backgrounds.

There are many types of iron ore deposits. The mineralogical and geological differences are crucial to a project's economics, mainly affecting recovery and CAPEX. 

Our experts partner with Process Engineers to produce reliable mineral resource estimates.


Rare Earth Elements (REE)

Rare Earths are in high demand, and their popularity is likely to increase in the coming years due to the needs of the technology industry.

Although modelling is generally simple, the sheer number of elements involved is an interesting challenge for Resource Geologists.

Our experts understand the particularities of REE deposits, and we partner with Metallurgists and other experts to produce reliable mineral resource estimates.

Porphyry Systems and Skarns

Often not appearing challenging to model at first glance, Porphyry Systems and Skarn Deposits can have higher-grade local structures that merit more attention.

Deposits associated with porphyry systems encompass a wide variety of types characterized by metal content, geotectonic setting, hydrothermal alteration, and host lithology.

Porphyry systems typically show the presence of veins and stringers forming stockworks, within which are found disseminated sulphides of iron, copper, molybdenite, lead, and zinc, with native gold, accompanied by tungsten, bismuth, and tin minerals.

The number of elements involved requires a strong grasp of metallurgy and solid interpolation skills to produce a reliable mineral resource estimate.


Graphite (and Graphene)

There are mainly three genetic types of Graphite deposits: regional metamorphic, contact metamorphic, and hydrothermal.

Graphite deposits result from the metamorphism of sedimentary rocks rich in carbonaceous matter or from precipitation from carbon-bearing fluids (structurally controlled veins).

Crystalline flake graphite is the main raw material for manufacturing graphene and batteries. Its value is significantly higher than other types of graphite.

Typically, crystalline flake graphite deposits show a gradational contact between graphite-rich units and surrounding barren units; graphite content decreases with increasing distance from calcsilicate rocks. For some deposits, the highest-grade graphite is encountered in the crests of folds.

Other Types of Deposits

We also have expertise in Nickel, Platinum Group Element (PGE), Zn-Pb Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT), and Uranium deposits.

Our 3D modelling and resource estimation skills cover relatively simple geological settings to structurally complex environments, including karstic and lateritic environments.

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